Ammunition Regulation in Missouri

Missouri generally prohibits the knowing possession, manufacture, transportation, repair or sale of a bullet or projectile that explodes or detonates on impact due to an independent explosive charge after being shot from a firearm.1

Missouri prohibits anyone from recklessly selling, leasing, loaning, giving away or delivering ammunition to a person who is intoxicated.2

Missouri also makes it a violation of state law for anyone to violate the federal law prohibiting a person under age 18 from possessing handgun ammunition and prohibiting the sale or transfer of handgun ammunition to a person under age 18.3.))

See the section entitled Firearms Trafficking in Missouri regarding a law prohibiting certain illegal sales of ammunition.

Missouri does not:

 

Notes
  1. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.020.1(4). ⤴︎
  2. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.060.1(3). ⤴︎
  3. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.080 (referring to 18 U.S.C. § 922(x ⤴︎
  4. Although Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.060.1(1) penalizes anyone who knowingly sells, leases, loans, gives away or delivers ammunition to any person who, under Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.070, is not lawfully entitled to possess such, Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.070 does not prohibit the possession of ammunition by any individual. ⤴︎
  5. Missouri prohibits the possession or use of armor-piercing ammunition in the commission or attempted commission of a crime. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.150. ⤴︎

Background Checks in Missouri

Federal law requires federally licensed firearms dealers (but not private sellers) to initiate a background check on the purchaser prior to sale of a firearm. Federal law provides states with the option of serving as a state “point of contact” and conducting their own background checks using state, as well as federal, records and databases, or having the checks performed by the FBI using only the federal National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. (Note that state files are not always included in the federal database.)

Missouri is not a point of contact state for firearm purchaser background checks. In Missouri, all firearms transfers by licensed dealers are processed directly through the FBI, which enforces the federal purchaser prohibitions referenced above.1

See our Background Checks policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Missouri does not require private sellers (sellers who are not licensed dealers) to initiate a background check when transferring a firearm. See our Private Sales policy summary.

Notes
  1. Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Instant Criminal Background Check System Participation Map, at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/nics/general-information/participation-map. ⤴︎

Child Access Prevention in Missouri

Missouri prohibits any person from recklessly selling, leasing, loaning, giving away or delivering a firearm to a person under age 18 without the consent of the child’s custodial parent or guardian.1 Missouri does not otherwise have any laws that penalize individuals for negligently storing or leaving a firearm in a location where a child is likely to gain access to it.

State administrative regulations may govern the safe storage of firearms in other locations.

See our Child Access Prevention policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.060.1(2). ⤴︎

Concealed Weapons Permitting in Missouri

See our Carrying Concealed Weapons policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Effective January 1, 2017, Missouri allows individuals to carry concealed firearms in most locations without first obtaining a permit. In 2016, Missouri legislators overrode the governor’s veto to enact SB 656, which repealed a state law that used to generally prohibit individuals without a permit from carrying concealed firearms.1 Starting January 1, 2017, the new law allows individuals without a concealed carry permit to carry concealed firearms throughout the state, except that they may not bring concealed firearms:

  • Into specified locations where concealed carry by permit-holders was formerly prohibited under state law;2
  • Into a church or place where people have assembled for worship, or into any election precinct on any election day, or into any building owned or occupied by any agency of the federal government, state government, or political subdivision thereof;3 or
  • Onto any school bus, or onto the premises of any function or activity sponsored or sanctioned by school officials or the district school board.4

However, individuals do not violate Missouri law even if they carry a concealed firearm into one of the locations specified as being prohibited if:

  • The firearm is not readily accessible;
  • In addition to the concealed firearm, the person is in possession of an exposed firearm for the lawful pursuit of game; or
  • The person is in premises over which he or she has possession, authority or control.5

For more information on the specific places where concealed carry is prohibited in Missouri, even after the enactment of SB 656, please see our page on Other Location Restrictions in Missouri.

Although it made “permitless” concealed carry lawful in most locations in Missouri, SB 656 nevertheless kept in place Missouri’s concealed carry permitting system, and made certain revisions to that system to make it easier to obtain a permit for a longer period of time. Even though a permit is now not needed to carry concealed firearms in most places within the state, individuals may still wish to obtain a Missouri concealed carry permit, because holders of Missouri permits are allowed to carry concealed weapons in some other states that recognize Missouri’s permits.

For those who seek concealed weapons permits for that purpose, Missouri is a “shall issue” state, meaning that a county or city sheriff, or his or her designee, must issue a concealed carry permit if the applicant meets certain qualifications.6 The sheriff must issue a concealed carry permit if the applicant:7

  • Is at least age 19, or is at least 18 and a member of the United States Armed Forces or honorably discharged from the United States Armed Forces;8
  • Is a citizen or permanent resident of the United States;
  • Is either:
    • A resident of Missouri; or
    • A member of the armed forces stationed in Missouri, or the spouse of such military member;
  • Has not pled guilty to or entered a plea of nolo contendere (no contest) or been convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year under the laws of any state or of the United States, other than a crime classified as a misdemeanor punishable by a term of imprisonment of two years or less that does not involve an explosive weapon, firearm, firearm silencer or gas gun;
  • Has not been convicted of, pled guilty to or entered a plea of nolo contendere (no contest) to one or more misdemeanor offenses involving crimes of violence during the immediately preceding five-year period, or has not been convicted of two or more misdemeanor offenses involving driving while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs or the possession or abuse of a controlled substance during the immediately preceding five-year period;
  • Is not a fugitive from justice or currently charged in an information or indictment with the commission of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year under the laws of any state of the United States, other than a crime classified as a misdemeanor punishable by a term of imprisonment of two years or less that does not involve an explosive weapon, firearm, firearm silencer, or gas gun;
  • Has not been discharged under dishonorable conditions from the U.S. Armed Forces;
  • Has not engaged in a pattern of behavior, documented in public records, that causes the sheriff to have a reasonable belief that the applicant presents a danger to himself, herself, or others;
  • Is not adjudged mentally incompetent at the time of application or for five years prior to application, or has not been committed to a mental health facility or a similar institution located in another state following a hearing at which the applicant was represented by counsel or a representative; and
  • Is not the respondent of a valid “full order of protection” that is still in effect.9

If the application is approved, the sheriff shall issue a concealed carry permit to the applicant within three working days after his or her approval of the application.10

Missouri’s standard concealed carry permit is valid for five years.11 However, following the enactment of SB 656, Missouri also requires the sheriff to issue “lifetime” concealed carry permits (valid for the lifetime of the permit-holder) and “extended” concealed carry permits (valid for 10 or 25 years) to applicants who request these types of permits and who meet the qualifications for a five-year permit, but are also residents of the state of Missouri.12 Missouri does not require applicants for its five-year permit to be residents of Missouri if the applicant or applicant’s spouse is a member of the armed forces.13

Firearm Safety Training

Applicants for a standard, extended, or lifetime concealed carry permit are required to demonstrate knowledge of firearms safety training.14 In 2016, Missouri loosened its requirements for firearms safety training by allowing permit applicants to satisfy some safety training requirements by taking a “regular or online course on firearm safety conducted by an instructor certified by the National Rifle Association that is at least one hour in length.”15 Applicants who complete a one-hour NRA course must still complete a separate course taught by a qualified safety instructor, but do not need to spend a particular number of hours in such a course.16 The extra course that is required in addition to the NRA course must include instruction on:

  • Handgun safety techniques in the classroom, at home, on the firing range and while carrying the firearm;
  • Missouri’s requirements for obtaining a concealed carry permit from the sheriff of the individual’s county of residence;
  • Missouri’s laws relating to firearms;
  • Missouri’s laws relating to the justifiable use of force;17
  • A live firing exercise of sufficient duration for each applicant to fire either a revolver or a semiautomatic pistol, from a standing position or its equivalent, a minimum of 20 rounds from the handgun at a distance of seven yards from a B-27 silhouette target or an equivalent target; and
  • A live fire test administered to the applicant while the instructor is present of 20 rounds from either handgun from a standing position or its equivalent at a distance from a B-27 silhouette target, or an equivalent target, of seven yards.18

Applicants for all types of concealed carry permits who do not complete an NRA course must take and pass a firearms safety course of at least eight hours in length that includes instruction on all of the above topics, plus:

  • The basic principles of marksmanship;
  • Care and cleaning of concealable firearms; and
  • Safe storage of firearms at home.19

The qualified firearms safety instructor shall affirm that the applicant received this instruction and successfully met all requirements on the certificate of firearms safety training course completion.20

A qualified firearms safety instructor must not give a passing grade to any applicant who: 1) Does not follow the orders of the instructor or cognizant range officer; 2) Handles a firearm in a manner that, in the judgment of the instructor, poses a danger to the applicant or to others; or 3) During the live fire testing portion of the course, fails to hit the silhouette portion of the targets with at least 15 rounds.21

Instructors are required to: 1) Make the applicant’s course records available upon request to the sheriff of the county in which the applicant resides; 2) Maintain all course records on students for a period of no less than four years from course completion date; and 3) Not have more than 40 students per certified instructor in the classroom portion of the course, or more than five students per range officer engaged in range firing.22

An applicant satisfies the firearms safety training requirement if he or she:

  • Submits a photocopy of a certificate of firearms safety training course completion that is signed by a qualified firearms safety instructor;
  • Submits a photocopy of a certificate that shows the applicant completed a firearms safety course given by or under the supervision of any state, county, municipal, or federal law enforcement agency;
  • Is a qualified firearms safety instructor;
  • Submits proof that he or she currently holds any type of valid peace officer license valid under state law;
  • Submits proof that the applicant is currently allowed to carry firearms in accordance with state certification requirements; or
  • Submits proof that he or she is currently certified as any class of corrections officer by the Missouri department of corrections and has passed at least one eight-hour firearms training course, approved by the director of the Missouri department of corrections that includes instruction on the justifiable use of force.23

An applicant must submit an affidavit attesting that he or she has complied with these concealed carry safety training requirements.24

Duration & Renewal

A standard concealed carry permit is valid for five years from the last day of the month in which the permit was issued or renewed.25 A concealed carry “endorsement” issued prior to August 28, 2013, shall continue from the date of issuance or renewal until three years from the last day of the month in which the endorsement was issued or renewed to authorize the carrying of a concealed firearm on or about the applicant’s person or within a vehicle in the same manner as a concealed carry permit issued on or after August 28, 2013.26

A “lifetime” concealed carry permit (available on request to applicants who meet the criteria for a standard permit, but are also Missouri residents) is valid for the lifetime of the permit-holder.27

An “extended” concealed carry permit (available on request to applicants who meet the criteria for a standard permit, but are also Missouri residents) is valid for 10 or 25 years.28

Disclosure or Use of Information

Information regarding any holder of a concealed carry permit, or a concealed carry endorsement issued prior to August 28, 2013, is a closed record.29 Closed records are inaccessible to the general public.30

A sheriff is required to keep a record of all applications for a concealed carry permit or a provisional permit and of his or her action on such applications.31 The sheriff is required to report the issuance of all concealed carry permits or provisional permits to the concealed carry permit system, but an applicant’s status as a holder of a concealed carry permit, provisional permit, or a concealed carry endorsement issued prior to August 28, 2013, is not public information and must be considered personal protected information.32

Reciprocity

A valid concealed carry endorsement or permit issued by another state authorizes the permittee or endorsee to carry a concealed firearm on or about his or her person or vehicle throughout Missouri.33 However, these provisions do not permit the carrying of a concealed firearm in certain specified locations. See the Missouri Other Location Restrictions section.

Notes
  1. See 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, vetoed by the Governor on June 27, 2016, veto overriden on September 14, 2016. ⤴︎
  2. See Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.030.1(1) (making it an offense to carry “concealed upon or about his or her person a knife, a firearm, a blackjack or any other weapon readily capable of lethal use, but only when carried “into any area where firearms are restricted under section 571.107); Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1 (listing 17 restricted locations). ⤴︎
  3. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.030.1(8). ⤴︎
  4. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.030.1(10). ⤴︎
  5. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.030.3. ⤴︎
  6. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.101.2, 571.101.7. ⤴︎
  7. Id. ⤴︎
  8. In 2011, Missouri lowered the minimum age for a concealed carry permit from 23 to 21, and in 2014, Missouri lowered the minimum age again to 19 ⤴︎
  9. A “full order of protection” is an order of protection issued after a hearing on the record where the respondent has received notice of the proceedings and has had an opportunity to be heard. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 455.010. ⤴︎
  10. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101.7. ⤴︎
  11. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101. 1. ⤴︎
  12. 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.205. 1. ⤴︎
  13. 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.205. 3. ⤴︎
  14. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.111.1; 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating 571.205.5. ⤴︎
  15. 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.111.3. ⤴︎
  16. See id. ⤴︎
  17. See Mo. Rev. Stat. Ch. 563, Defense to Justification. ⤴︎
  18. 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.111.3, 571.111.2. ⤴︎
  19. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.111.2. ⤴︎
  20. Id. ⤴︎
  21. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.111.3. ⤴︎
  22. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.111.4. ⤴︎
  23. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.111.1. ⤴︎
  24. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101.2(9). ⤴︎
  25. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101.1; see also 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 302.181.7, 571.101.7. ⤴︎
  26. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101.1. ⤴︎
  27. 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.205.1. ⤴︎
  28. 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.205.1. ⤴︎
  29. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101.10; 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating § 571.205.11. ⤴︎
  30. See Mo. Rev. Stat. § 610.120. Closed records are available to law enforcement agencies for issuance or renewal of a permit to possess a firearm. Id. ⤴︎
  31. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101.9(1); 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.205.10(1). ⤴︎
  32. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.101.9(2); 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, creating Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.205.10(2). ⤴︎
  33. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030.4, 571.107.1. ⤴︎

Dealer Regulations in Missouri

See our Dealer Regulations policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Federal law requires firearms dealers to obtain a license from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives (ATF), although resource limitations prevent the ATF from properly overseeing all its licensees.

Missouri does not require firearms dealers to obtain a state license.

Missouri makes it a violation of state law for a licensed dealer to violate certain federal requirements. More specifically, a federally licensed dealer commits a state crime if it violates the federal law:

  • Governing the age of firearm purchasers;
  • Prohibiting sales to purchasers prohibited by state law from possessing a firearm; and
  • Limiting the state of residence of certain purchasers.1

However, Missouri law prohibits a federal firearms dealer who engages in the sale of firearms from failing or refusing to complete the sale of a firearm to a customer when the sale is authorized by federal law.2 This provision does not apply to any individual federal firearms license holder or his or her agents or employees to the extent they chose in their individual judgment to not complete the sale or transfer of a firearm for articulable reasons specific to that transaction, so long as those reasons are not based on the race, gender, religion, or creed of the buyer.3

For laws:

 

Notes
  1. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.080 (referring to 18 U.S.C. § 922(b). ⤴︎
  2. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.014.3. Note that this provision appears to nullify all of the state prohibited purchaser categories. See the Missouri Prohibited Purchasers Generally section for these provisions. ⤴︎
  3. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.014.4. ⤴︎

Design Safety Standards for Handguns in Missouri

Missouri does not specifically regulate junk guns or otherwise impose design safety standards for handguns. According to research conducted by the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence (now Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence), Missouri’s Attorney General may have the authority to regulate “junk guns,” as well as promulgate other firearm safety standards.1

See our Design Safety Standards for Handguns policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. Missouri Merchandising Practices Act, Missouri Revised Statutes § 407.010 et seq. For details, see Legal Action Project, Center to Prevent Handgun Violence, Targeting Safety (2001), available at http://www.bradycampaign.org/sites/default/files/targetingsafety.pdf. ⤴︎

Disarming Prohibited Persons in Missouri

For persons convicted for committing or attempting to commit a felony in which a firearm is used in any manner, Missouri law authorizes, but does not require, the convicting court to order the confiscation and disposal, or sale or trade to a licensed firearms dealer, of any firearms or ammunition used in the commission of the crime or found in the possession or immediate control of the defendant at the time of his or her arrest.1

Missouri has no other law requiring the removal of firearms from individuals prohibited from possessing them.

Notes
  1. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.095. The proceeds of any sale or gains from trade shall be the property of the police department or sheriff’s department responsible for the defendant’s arrest or the confiscation of the firearms and ammunition. Id. If the firearms or ammunition are not the property of the convicted felon, they shall be returned to their rightful owner if he or she is known and was not a participant in the crime. Id. ⤴︎

Domestic Violence & Firearms in Missouri

Missouri law does not:

  • Prohibit individuals convicted of domestic violence misdemeanors from purchasing or possessing firearms or ammunition, unlike federal law;
  • Prohibit individuals subject to domestic violence protective orders from possessing firearms or ammunition, unlike federal law;
  • Require courts to notify domestic abusers when they become prohibited from possessing firearms or ammunition under federal law;
  • Require the surrender of firearms or ammunition by domestic abusers who have become prohibited from possessing firearms or ammunition under federal law; or
  • Explicitly authorize or require the removal of firearms or ammunition at the scene of a domestic violence incident.1

See our Domestic Violence & Firearms policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. For prohibitions on obtaining a concealed carry endorsement due to a domestic violence order of protection, see the Concealed Weapons Permitting in Missouri page. ⤴︎