People carrying hidden, loaded handguns in public create unnecessary risks of intentional or accidental shootings. Carrying concealed weapons (CCW) increases the risk that everyday disagreements will escalate into shootouts, especially in places where disputes frequently occur—in bars, at sporting events, and in traffic. Permissive concealed carry laws violate the shared expectation that public places will be safe environments free from guns and gun violence.
Over the past 30 years, states across the country have dramatically weakened their CCW laws. These changes have significantly expanded the number of people who have permits to carry hidden, loaded handguns and the number of public locations in which they may be carried.1
History of CCW
For decades, most states either prohibited or severely limited concealed carrying.2 Handgun carrying bans were among the earliest gun laws adopted by states; even legendary Old West frontier towns like Dodge City, Kansas, knew better than to allow the carrying of hidden pistols. In the 20th century, some states granted law enforcement the discretion to issue CCW permits to persons who could demonstrate a legitimate need to carry a hidden gun in public, while other states continued to ban concealed carrying altogether. Over the past three decades, at the behest of the gun lobby, many states have overturned these longstanding laws in favor of permissive CCW permitting systems. Twelve states now even allow individuals to carry concealed without possessing any permit at all,3 even though large national polls have found that 88% of gun owners and 86% of NRA members oppose repealing CCW permitting requirements.4 In these permitless carry states, it is easier to legally carry a loaded, hidden handgun in public than it is to legally drive a car.
Concealed Carry Criminals
Weak permitting systems allow dangerous people to carry guns. A Los Angeles Times analysis of Texas CCW holders, for example, found that between 1995 and 2000, more than 400 convicted criminals—including rapists and armed robbers—had been issued CCW licenses under the state’s permitting law.5 A similar study by the South Florida Sun-Sentinel found that in just the first half of 2006, Florida had issued CCW licenses to more than 1,400 individuals who had pleaded guilty or no contest to felonies, 216 individuals with outstanding warrants, 128 people with active domestic violence injunctions against them, and six registered sex offenders.6 An investigation by the Indianapolis Star regarding CCW permit holders in Indiana revealed similar problems with the state’s permitting system.7
Another study of Texas’ permissive concealed carry law found that between January 1, 1996, (when the law first took effect) and August 31, 2001, Texas concealed handgun license holders were arrested for 5,314 crimes, including murder, rape, kidnapping and theft.8 The investigation found that some license holders had been arrested for more than two crimes per day, and for more than four drunk driving offenses per week. From 1996 to 2000, license holders were arrested for weapons-related crimes at a rate 81 percent higher than that of the state’s general population age 21 and older.9
A Violence Policy Center analysis has also found that CCW permit holders have perpetrated at least 31 mass shootings and killed at least 1,082 people since May 2007.10
Concealed Carry and Gun Trafficking
Weak laws regulating the carrying of concealed weapons have also been linked to increased gun trafficking. According to a September 2010 report by Mayors Against Illegal Guns, laws that deprive law enforcement of discretion regarding the issuance of concealed carry permits are the source of crime guns recovered in other states at more than twice the rate of states that grant law enforcement such discretion.11
False Gun Lobby Claims
Claims that permissive CCW laws lead to decreases in crime—by helping permit holders fight off criminals and sending the message to would-be attackers that any potential victim might be packing heat—are simply untrue. On the contrary, CCW permit holders actually threaten public safety, even when they may be trying to assist in a dangerous situation. During the 2011 Tucson shooting, for example—where the shooter killed six people and injured 14 others, including Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords—an individual carrying a concealed weapon almost drew his gun against a man who had wrestled the shooter’s gun away, thinking erroneously that the man was actually the shooter.12
No credible statistical evidence exists to show that permissive CCW laws reduce crime.13 In fact, the evidence suggests that permissive CCW laws increase the frequency of violent crimes like assault. A 2017 study by Stanford University researchers estimated that adoption of weak ‘shall issue’ permitting laws were associated with a 13-15 percent increase in violent crime rates after 10 years.14 This research confirms that allowing more guns in public crowds and streets creates more opportunities for injury and death, not fewer.15
Claims that guns are used defensively millions times every year have also been widely discredited.16 Even when a gun is used in self-defense, which is rare, the research shows that it is no more likely to reduce a person’s chance of being injured during a crime than various other forms of protective action.17 One study suggests that carrying a firearm may actually increase a victim’s risk of firearm injury during the commission of a crime.18
Public Opposition to Lax CCW Laws
In a 2010 nationwide poll, a majority of Americans opposed laws allowing people to carry concealed, loaded handguns in public places.19 Additionally, there is near-universal agreement that a variety of public spaces should be gun-free. According to a nationwide poll, nine out of ten Americans oppose laws allowing guns on college campuses, or in bars, restaurants, stadiums, hospitals, or government buildings.20
Summary of Federal Law
Federally Mandated CCW
In recent years, the gun lobby has been pushing federal legislation that would mandate that each state recognize concealed carry permits from every other state. Many states have extremely lax permitting laws; ten states do not even require a permit to carry concealed. Forcing states with strong CCW laws like California and New York to comply with weak laws from states like Florida and Louisiana will endanger public safety and make it significantly harder for police to enforce gun laws proven to save lives.
Law Enforcement CCW
Federal law provides that certain law enforcement officers may carry concealed firearms. Any “qualified law enforcement officer” with proper agency-issued identification may carry a concealed firearm.21 The term “qualified law enforcement officer” is defined as any employee of a governmental agency who:
- Is authorized to engage in or supervise the prevention, detection, investigation, or prosecution of, or the incarceration of any person for, any violation of law, and has statutory powers of arrest;
- Is authorized by the agency to carry a firearm;
- Is not the subject of any disciplinary action by the agency;
- Meets the standards, if any, established by the agency which require the employee to regularly qualify in the use of a firearm;
- Is not under the influence of alcohol or another intoxicating or hallucinatory drug or substance; and
- Is not prohibited by federal law from receiving a firearm.22
Under federal law, any “qualified retired law enforcement officer” with proper identification may also carry a concealed firearm.23 The term “qualified retired law enforcement officer” is defined as an individual who:
- Retired in good standing from service with a public agency as a law enforcement officer, other than for reasons of mental instability;
- Before such retirement, was authorized by law to engage in or supervise the prevention, detection, investigation, or prosecution of, or the incarceration of any person for, any violation of law, and had statutory powers of arrest;
- Before retirement, was regularly employed as a law enforcement officer for an aggregate of 15 years or more; or
- Retired from service with such agency, after completing any applicable probationary period of such service, due to a service-connected disability, as determined by such agency;
- Has a non-forfeitable right to benefits under the retirement plan of the agency;
- During the most recent 12-month period, has met, at the expense of the individual, the state’s standards for training and qualification for active law enforcement officers to carry firearms;
- Is not under the influence of alcohol or another intoxicating or hallucinatory drug or substance; and
- Is not prohibited by federal law from receiving a firearm.24
Both statutes supersede state and local laws regarding concealed carry by law enforcement except in certain circumstances. States are not precluded from allowing private persons or entities to prohibit or restrict the possession of concealed firearms on their property by current or retired law enforcement. States also are not precluded from prohibiting or restricting the possession of firearms by current or retired law enforcement on any state or local government property, installations, buildings, bases or parks.
Background Check Exception
Significantly, a person holding a state-issued permit allowing the person to acquire or possess firearms (e.g., a concealed weapons permit) is not required to undergo a background check if the permit was issued: (1) within the previous five years in the state in which the transfer is to take place; and (2) after an authorized government official has conducted a background investigation to verify that possession of a firearm would not be unlawful.25 Permits issued after November 30, 1998 qualify as exempt only if the approval process included a NICS check.26
This exemption threatens public safety because it allows a prohibited person to acquire a firearm when the person falls into a prohibited category after issuance of the state permit and the state has not immediately revoked the permit. Under the federal exemption, no background check is required and the seller would have no way to learn that the prospective purchaser is prohibited from possessing firearms. For more information about this exemption, see our summary on Background Checks Procedure.
Summary of State Law
Every state—including the District of Columbia—allows the carrying of concealed weapons in some form. Forty states generally require a state-issued permit in order to carry concealed weapons in public (CCW permit). The remaining ten (Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming) generally allow individuals to carry concealed weapons in public without a permit. (However, nine of these ten states still issue CCW permits; individuals may desire them to qualify for an exemption from federal law’s background check requirements when purchasing a firearm, or so that they may carry concealed weapons in other states).
Of the 40 states that generally require a CCW permit in order to carry concealed weapons in public, nine states have “may issue” laws, which grant the issuing authority wide discretion to deny a CCW permit to an applicant if, for example, the authority believes the applicant lacks good character or lacks a good reason for carrying a weapon in public. The other 33 states have “shall issue” laws, which require the issuing authority to grant most CCW permit requests. “Shall issue” laws can be further subdivided into states that provide no discretion to the issuing authority, and states which provide the issuing authority a limited amount of discretion.
Nearly every state places some restrictions on where concealed firearms may be carried, including restrictions in bars, schools, and hospitals, and at public sporting events.
“May Issue” States
Limited Discretion “Shall Issue” States
No Discretion “Shall Issue” States
No CCW Permit Is Required
“May” Versus “Shall” Issue Laws
“May issue” laws give full discretion to the issuing official to grant or deny the permit, based on the guidance of various statutory factors. Even if the general requirements are met, a permit does not have to be issued. This kind of law allows permitting authorities to consider factors that may not have been included in the language of a state’s CCW permitting statutes. Nine states have “may issue” laws.
In “shall issue” states, law enforcement officials are required to issue a permit to anyone who meets certain minimal statutory requirements (e.g., that the person is not a convicted felon or mentally incompetent). Among states with shall issue laws, some states provide the issuing authority no discretion to deny a permit if the person meets these requirements. In contrast, other states have “shall issue” statutes that still give issuing authorities some degree of discretion to deny a permit if, for example, there is reasonable suspicion to believe that the applicant is a danger to self or others. These “limited discretion” states fall into a separate category that lies between pure “shall issue” and pure “may issue” states.
As noted above, twelve states (Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming) now allow the carrying of concealed weapons without a permit, though all but Vermont issue CCW permits.
Qualifications for Concealed Weapons Permits
While each state has its own unique CCW permitting system, there are several standards that are more commonly utilized. The strongest laws require CCW applicants to demonstrate good cause as to why the applicant needs a permit. Eleven states have this requirement. In addition, eight “may issue” states also require the applicant to be of good character before a permit is issued. In roughly half the states, CCW applicants are also required to demonstrate some level of knowledge of firearm use and/or firearm safety.
States Requiring a Showing of Good Cause
Eight of the nine “may issue” states and three limited discretion “shall issue” states require a showing of need or a proper purpose for the applicant to carry a concealed firearm. California, Delaware, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York and Rhode Island require CCW permit applicants to demonstrate good cause or a justifiable need to carry a concealed weapon. In California, for example, good cause exists to issue a CCW permit when there is a clear and present danger to the applicant or the applicant’s spouse, family, or employees. Generally, a credible threat to the applicant’s safety that cannot be alleviated through other legal channels constitutes good cause when applying for a CCW permit. Maryland requires an applicant to demonstrate “a good and substantial reason to wear, carry, or transport a handgun, such as a finding that the permit is necessary as a reasonable precaution against apprehended danger.” New York requires an applicant to demonstrate “proper cause,” and New Jersey allows a court to issue a permit only if it is satisfied that the applicant “has a justifiable need to carry a handgun.”
Other states further delineate the circumstances that constitute good cause or justifiable need: Massachusetts and Rhode Island require the applicant to show a “good reason” to fear injury to his or her person or property, or any other proper reason for carrying a concealed firearm. Delaware issues concealed weapons licenses only “for personal protection or the protection of the person’s property.” Hawaii grants licenses to carry concealed weapons “[i]n an exceptional case, when an applicant shows reason to fear injury to the applicant’s person or property.” Connecticut is the only “may issue” state that does not require the applicant to demonstrate a reason for a permit.
Three “shall issue” states, Indiana, New Hampshire and North Dakota, require an applicant to show a “proper purpose” or a valid reason for carrying a concealed firearm. Under the laws in these states, the reason may include self-protection, the protection of others, or a work-related need.
States that Require a Showing of Good Cause for Issuance of a Concealed Weapons Permit
States Requiring Applicants to be of Good Character or a Suitable Person, or Allowing for Denial When There is Reason to Believe a Person is Dangerous
Eight “may issue” and three limited-discretion “shall issue” states (Georgia, Indiana, and New Hampshire) require the licensing authority to consider the character of the applicant. Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island allow permits to be issued only to “suitable persons.” California, Delaware, Georgia, and New York require the licensing authority to find that the applicant is of “good moral character.” New Jersey requires that three “reputable persons” who have known the applicant for at least three years certify that the applicant is of “good moral character and behavior.” Delaware also requires that the applicant include with his or her application a certificate signed by five “respectable citizens” of the county in which the applicant resides stating that the applicant is of good moral character, has a reputation for peace and good order, and that possession of a concealed deadly weapon by the applicant is necessary for the protection of the applicant or the applicant’s property. Indiana requires the applicant be of good character and reputation.
The remaining limited discretion “shall issue” states do not technically have a “good character” requirement, but allow a CCW application to be denied to a person who is not categorically ineligible if law enforcement can show a documented reason to believe the person is dangerous.
States that Require Applicants to be of Good Character or a Suitable Person
States Without a “Character” Requirement that Allow Denials When There is Reason to Believe the Person is Dangerous
States Requiring Applicants to Demonstrate Knowledge of Firearm Use and/or Safety
More than half of the states require a CCW permit applicant to demonstrate that they have received training in firearm use and/or safety. Among “may issue” states, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Jersey and Rhode Island require applicants to complete a firearm safety course, or otherwise demonstrate their qualification to use a firearm safely. Delaware’s firearm safety training requirement, which applies to the applicant’s initial CCW license only, is particularly strong, and specifies that the training course must include instruction regarding:
• Knowledge and safe handling of firearms and ammunition;
• Safe storage of firearms and ammunition and child safety;
• Safe firearms shooting fundamentals;
• Federal and state laws pertaining to the lawful purchase, ownership, transportation, use and possession of firearms;
• State laws pertaining to the use of deadly force for self-defense; and
• Techniques for avoiding a criminal attack and how to manage a violent confrontation, including conflict resolution.
Delaware also requires that the training include live fire-shooting exercises on a range, including the expenditure of a minimum of 100 rounds of ammunition, and identification of ways to develop and maintain firearm-shooting skills. Finally, Rhode Island requires applicants to obtain a certification that they are qualified to use a handgun of a caliber equal to or larger than the one they seek to carry. The certification can be obtained by passing a firing test conducted by a range officer or pistol instructor. Such thorough training requirements help ensure that only highly trained individuals are allowed to carry concealed firearms in public areas.
Among “shall issue” states, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, North Carolina, South Carolina and Texas require live firing as part of the firearm training component of the law.
States Requiring CCW Applicants to Demonstrate Knowledge of Firearm Use and/or Safety:
Minimum Age Requirements
There are seven states (Delaware, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota) that expressly grant CCW permits to at least some applicants who are 18 or over. Two of these states, Delaware and Maryland, are may issue states. In Maryland, the statute also specifies that a person under 30 is disqualified for certain juvenile adjudications. In Iowa, only professional CCW licenses are available to a person under 21. In North Dakota, applicants under 21 can only get a Class 2 license (the primary difference between a class 1 and a class 2 license is that more states recognize the class 1 license).
Two states, Alabama and New Hampshire, are silent on a minimum age for permit applicants.
Three may issue states, California, New Jersey, and New York, are silent on age requirements.
States Limiting the Locations where Concealed Weapons May be Carried
Almost every state imposes at least some restrictions on the locations in which concealed weapons may be carried. The majority of states prohibit concealed weapons on school property, in prisons or jails, courthouses and other government buildings. A smaller number of jurisdictions prohibit concealed weapons in a wide range of other locations, including places of worship (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Wyoming); bars or other establishments which serve alcohol on their premises (Alaska, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Washington and Wyoming); polling places (Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, South Carolina and Texas); public sporting events (Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and Oklahoma); hospitals and/or medical facilities (Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, South Carolina and Texas); sites where gambling is permitted (Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, Oklahoma and Pennsylvania); and mental health facilities (Kansas, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Washington).
Other Restrictions on Permits
State concealed weapons permits vary in duration and renewal processes. The strongest laws limit the duration of permits and require applicants for renewal of a permit to undergo a complete background check and complete safety training and testing. Strong state laws also require the immediate revocation of a permit if the permit-holder becomes ineligible for the permit or violates a law regarding firearms.
State laws also vary regarding the carrying of concealed weapons by individuals who have obtained a permit from a different state. The strongest state laws limit the carrying of concealed weapons to individuals who have obtained a permit from that state. Other states limit carrying to individuals with permits from states that have similar requirements for their permits. The states with the weakest laws allow carrying by individuals with permits from any state that recognizes that state’s permit, or by individuals with permits from any state.
Key Legislative Elements
The features listed below are intended to provide a framework from which policy options may be considered. A jurisdiction considering new legislation should consult with counsel.
- A license or permit to carry is required
- Law enforcement has full discretion to issue permits (nine states are pure “may issue” states) based on strict guidelines, including, but not limited to, a showing of both:
- Good moral character, and
- Good cause for requesting a CCW permit
- In addition to background checks, applicants are required to have safety training and to pass written and hands-on tests demonstrating knowledge of firearm laws and safety (27 states require some form of firearm training/knowledge)
- Applicants must be 21 years of age or over
- Restrictions are placed on the locations where carrying concealed weapons is allowed, prohibiting the carrying of concealed weapons in sensitive areas such as schools, courthouses, hospitals, mental health institutions, and public sporting events
- Permits are of limited duration and may be renewed only upon satisfaction of all conditions and testing, including background checks
- Permits are subject to revocation in cases where holder becomes a prohibited purchaser or fails to comply with applicable federal, state and local firearms laws
- For more about this issue, see the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence’s publications Guns in Public Places: The Increasing Threat of Hidden Guns in America, and America Caught in the Crossfire: How Concealed Carry Laws Threaten Public Safety. The Law Center has also published a model law regulating the carrying of firearms in public places. ⤴︎
- For a more detailed discussion of this history, see Guns in Public Places: The Increasing Threat of Hidden Guns in America. ⤴︎
- Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming. ⤴︎
- See Public Policy Polling, “National Gun Owners Survey Results” (Apr. 19-20, 2017), at http://americansforresponsiblesolutions.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/GunOwnerResults.pdf. ⤴︎
- William C. Rempel & Richard A. Serrano, Felons Get Concealed Gun Licenses Under Bush’s ‘Tough’ Gun Law, L.A. Times, Oct. 3, 2000, at A1, at http://articles.latimes.com/2000/oct/03/news/mn-30319. ⤴︎
- Megan O’Matz, In Florida, It’s Easy to Get a License to Carry a Gun, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, Jan. 28, 2007, at 1A. ⤴︎
- Mark Alesia et al., Should These Hoosiers Have Been Allowed to Carry a Gun in Public?, Indianapolis Star, Oct. 11, 2009, at http://www.indystar.com/article/20091011/NEWS14/910110365/Should-these-Hoosiers-been-allowed-carry-gun-public-. ⤴︎
- Violence Policy Center, License to Kill IV: More Guns, More Crime 2 (June 2002), at http://www.vpc.org/graphics/ltk4.pdf. ⤴︎
- Id. at 5. ⤴︎
- Violence Policy Center, Concealed Carry Killers, at http://concealedcarrykillers.org/ ⤴︎
- Mayors Against Illegal Guns, Trace the Guns: The Link Between Gun Laws and Interstate Gun Trafficking 18-19 (Sept. 2010), at http://www.tracetheguns.org/report.pdf. The report noted that CCW permit holders in one state are often allowed, under reciprocity agreements with other states, to carry guns in those states, and are often exempt from laws designed to impede drug trafficking (such as one-gun-a-month laws, intended to prohibit individuals from buying guns in bulk and reselling them on the black market). ⤴︎
- William Saletan, Friendly Firearms, Slate (Jan. 11, 2011), at http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_nature/2011/01/friendly_firearms.single.html. ⤴︎
- Ian Ayres & John J. Donohue III, Shooting Down the “More Guns, Less Crime” Hypothesis, 55 Stan. L. Rev. 1193, 1285, 1296 (2003); Ian Ayres & John J. Donohue III, Comment, The Latest Misfires in Support of the “More Guns, Less Crime” Hypothesis, 55 Stan. L. Rev. 1371, 1397 (2003). ⤴︎
- See Alex Yablon, “More Good Guys with Concealed Guns = More Violent Crime,” The Trace (Jun. 29, 2017), at https://www.thetrace.org/2017/06/good-guys-guns-right-to-carry-laws-crime-rates/. See also, Daniel W. Webster et al., Firearms on College Campuses: Research Evidence and Policy Implications, at [16-17] (Oct. 15, 2016), http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johns-hopkins-center-for-gun-policy-and-research/_pdfs/GunsOnCampus.pdf; John J. Donohue II, et al., The Impact of Right-To-Carry Laws and the NRC Report: Lessons for the Empirical Evaluation of Law and Policy, 13 Am Law Econ Rev 565 (Fall 2011). ⤴︎
- States with higher rates of household firearm ownership also have significantly higher homicide victimization rates. Matthew Miller, Deborah Azrael & David Hemenway, Rates of Household Firearm Ownership and Homicide Across US Regions and States, 1988-1997, 92 Am. J. Pub. Health 1988, 1991-92 (Dec. 2002), at http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.92.12.1988 ⤴︎
- The most famous of these claims, that guns are used defensively 2.5 million times annually, is based on a study that suffers from several fatal methodological flaws, including its reliance on only 66 responses in a telephone survey of 5,000 people, multiplied out to purportedly represent 200 million American adults. David Hemenway, Policy and Perspective: Survey Research and Self-Defense Gun Use: An Explanation of Extreme Overestimates, 87 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 1430, 1432 (1997). The authors of that discredited study themselves stated that in up to 64 percent of their reported defensive gun use cases, the guns were carried or used illegally, including cases where the victim was actually the aggressor. Gary KIeck & Marc Gertz, Armed Resistance to Crime: The Prevalence and Nature of Self-Defense with a Gun, 86 J. CRIM. L. & CRIMINOLOGY 150, 174 (1995). ⤴︎
- David Hemenway, Private Guns, Public Health 78 (2004). ⤴︎
- Charles C. Branas, Therese S. Richmond, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas R. Ten Have & Douglas J. Wiebe, Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault, 99 Am. J. Pub. Health 2034 (Nov. 2009), at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759797/pdf/2034.pdf. ⤴︎
- Lake Research Partners for the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, Findings from a National Survey of 600 Registered Voters (Apr. 26-28, 2010), at http://www.lakeresearch.com/news/Brady/Public.Brady.pdf. The American Bar Association has recognized the dangers of weak concealed carry laws. On August 8, 2011, the Association’s House of Delegates adopted a resolution expressing its support for laws giving law enforcement broad discretion to determine whether a permit or license to engage in concealed carry should be issued, and its opposition to laws limiting such discretion. ⤴︎
- David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael & Matthew Miller, National Attitudes Concerning Gun Carrying in the United States, 7 Inj. Prev. 282, 283 (Dec. 2001), at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1730790/pdf/v007p00282.pdf. ⤴︎
- 18 U.S.C. § 926B. ⤴︎
- 18 U.S.C. § 926B(c). ⤴︎
- 18 U.S.C. § 926C. ⤴︎
- 18 U.S.C. § 926C(c). ⤴︎
- 18 U.S.C. § 922(t)(3); 27 C.F.R. § 478.102(d). ⤴︎
- 27 C.F.R. § 478.102(d). ⤴︎
- Cal. Penal Code §§ 25400-25700, 26150-26225. ⤴︎
- Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 29-28 – 29-30, 29-32, 29-32b, 29-35, 29-37. ⤴︎
- Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, §§ 1441, 1442. ⤴︎
- Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 134-9. ⤴︎
- Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety §§ 5-301 – 5-314. ⤴︎
- Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 131, 131C, 131P; ch. 269, § 10. ⤴︎
- N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:58-3, 2C:58-4, 2C:39-5. ⤴︎
- N.Y. Penal Law §§ 265.01, 265.20, 400.00. ⤴︎
- R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-8 – 11-47-18. ⤴︎
- Ala. Code § 13A-11-75. ⤴︎
- Ark. Code Ann. §§ 5-73-119, 5-73-120, 5-73-122, 5-73-301 – 5-73-319. ⤴︎
- Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-12-203, 18-12-215. ⤴︎
- Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-126 – 16-11-130. ⤴︎
- 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/1 – 66/110 (effective Jan. 2014). ⤴︎
- Ind. Code Ann. §§ 35-47-2-1 – 35-47-2-6, 35-47-6-1, 35-47-6-1.3, 35-47-9-1, 35-47-9-2. Indiana issues lifetime licenses to carry a handgun. The lifetime license carries no additional requirements (other than a higher fee). Ind. Code Ann. §§ 35-47-2-3, 35-47-2-4. ⤴︎
- Iowa Code §§ 724.4, 724.4B, 724.7 – 724.13. ⤴︎
- Minn. Stat. § 624.714. ⤴︎
- Mont. Code Ann. §§ 45-8-321 – 45-8-329. ⤴︎
- N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 159:6 – 159:6-f, 159:19. ⤴︎
- N.D. Cent. Code §§ 62.1-02-04 – 62.1-02-05, 62.1-04-01 – 62.1-04-05. ⤴︎
- Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.291 – 166.297, 166.370. ⤴︎
- 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 6106, 6109, 912, 913; 55 Pa. Code §§ 3270.79, 3280.79, 3800.101, 6400.86. ⤴︎
- S.D. Codified Laws §§ 23-7-7 – 23-7-8.6, 22-14-23, 13-32-7. ⤴︎
- Utah Code Ann. §§ 53-5-701 – 53-5-710, 76-8-311.1, 76-8-311.3, 76-10-529, 76-10-530. ⤴︎
- Va. Code Ann. §§ 18.2-308 – 18.2-308.015, 18.2-283, 18.2-283.1, 18.2-287.01. ⤴︎
- Fla. Stat. Ann. §§ 790.01, 790.015, 790.06, 790.0601. ⤴︎
- Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 237.110, 527.020. ⤴︎
- La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 40:1379.1, 40:1379.3, 40:1379.3.1. ⤴︎
- Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 28.421a – 28.429c. ⤴︎
- Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 28-1202, 69-2427 – 69-2449. ⤴︎
- Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 202.3653 – 202.369. ⤴︎
- N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 29-19-1 – 29-19-13, 30-7-2.4, 30-7-3, 30-7-13. ⤴︎
- N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 14-415.10 – 14-415.24, 14-269.2, 14-269.3, 14-277.2. ⤴︎
- Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 2923.11 – 2923.1213. ⤴︎
- Okla. Stat. tit. 21, §§ 1277, 1290.1 – 1290.26. ⤴︎
- S.C. Code Ann. §§ 23-31-210 – 23-31-240, 16-23-20, 16-23-420, 16-23-430, 16-23-460, 16-23-465. ⤴︎
- Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1351 – 39-17-1360, 39-17-1309. ⤴︎
- Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. §§ 411.171 – 411.208, Tex. Penal Code Ann. §§ 30.06, 46.15, 46.02, 46.03, 46.035. An amendment to Texas’s CCW law, effective Sept. 1, 2007, allows residents to carry concealed firearms without a permit when they are traveling in a private vehicle, and on their person when traveling to and from their premises and their vehicle. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.02, 46.15. Firearms in vehicles must be hidden from plain view. Id. ⤴︎
- Wash. Rev. Code Ann. §§ 9.41.070 – 9.41.075, 9.41.097, 9.41.280, 9.41.300, 9.41.800. ⤴︎
- Wis. Stat. § 175.60. ⤴︎
- Alaska Stat. § 11.61.220(a). ⤴︎
- Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3102. Enacted in 2010. ⤴︎
- Idaho Code § 18-3302 as amended by 2016 ID S 1389. Enacted in 2016. ⤴︎
- Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6302(4). Enacted in 2015. ⤴︎
- See Me. Stat., 25 § 2001-A. Enacted in 2015. ⤴︎
- 2016 Miss. H.B. 786, signed by the Governor April 15, 2016, amending Miss Code Ann. § 97-37-7(24). ⤴︎
- 2016 Mo. S.B. 656, Governor’s veto overridden Sept 14, 2016, amending Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030. ⤴︎
- 2017 NH SB 12, enacted and immediately effective on Feb. 22, 2017. ⤴︎
- 2017 ND HB 1169, enacted Mar. 23 and effective on Aug. 1, 2017 ⤴︎
- Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, §§ 4004, 4016. ⤴︎
- W. Va. Code § 61-7-3, effective May 24, 2016. Enacted in 2016. ⤴︎
- Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-8-104. Enacted in 2011. ⤴︎