Nebraska Nets First GVP Victory of 2016

Posted on Wednesday, January 27th, 2016

Nebraska-HighResToday, Nebraska took steps to protect its communities from gun violence, scoring an early victory for smart gun laws at the state level. We’re proud to announce that lawmakers there stopped progress on a bill that attempts to eliminate cities’ ability to regulate for public safety by enacting their own municipal gun safety regulations.

The bill, LB 289, which would have preempted lifesaving local laws like ones that keep guns out of the hands of juvenile gang members, the dangerously mentally ill or away from domestic violence shelters.

We’re proud to have provided legal analysis and support to activists on the ground in Nebraska. Today’s news is a critical win for Nebraska–the state scores a D on our Gun Law State Scorecard, and we’re thrilled to see that lawmakers are taking a stand against the gun lobby’s deadly agenda.

For more information about Nebraska’s state gun laws, see our policy page.
To learn more about preemption laws, see our policy page.
For more information on how your state stacks up when it comes to smart gun laws, visit our 2015 Gun Law State Scorecard

Microstamping & Ballistic Identification in the District of Columbia

Posted on Tuesday, January 26th, 2016

Ballistic Identification

The District of Columbia’s Chief of Police must ensure that any handgun to be registered in the District is submitted for a ballistics identification procedure.1

Any applicant seeking to register a handgun in the District must, prior to transfer, present the approved firearm registration application to the licensed firearms dealer selling the handgun and take the handgun directly to the Firearms Registration Section of the District’s Metropolitan Police Department for completion of a ballistic identification procedure, and pay a $12 fee.2 If the applicant purchases from a dealer located in another jurisdiction, the applicant must have that dealer transport the applicant’s handgun to a licensed dealer in the District where the applicant will accept transfer pending completion of a ballistic identification procedure.3

Failure to comply with the ballistics identification requirement will result in the denial of the registration application or revocation of the registration for that handgun, and may subject the handgun owner to criminal charges.4

Microstamping Requirements

The District prohibits licensed dealers from selling or offering for sale any firearm that does not have imbedded into the metal portion of such firearm a unique manufacturer’s identification number or serial number.5

Beginning January 1, 2018, the District will prohibit any licensed dealer from selling or offering for sale any semiautomatic pistol manufactured on or after January 1, 2018 that is not “microstamp-ready.”6 “Microstamp-ready” means manufactured to produce a unique alpha-numeric or geometric code on at least two locations on each expended cartridge case that identifies the make, mode, and serial number of the pistol.7 A semiautomatic pistol will be deemed microstamp-ready if it is:

  • Manufactured in the District of Columbia;
  • Manufactured on or after January 1, 2018, and delivered or caused to be delivered by any manufacturer to a firearms dealer in the District; or
  • Manufactured on or after January 1, 2018, and sold, offered for sale, loaned, given or transferred by a firearms dealer in the District.8

A semiautomatic pistol manufactured after January 1, 2018 that is not microstamp-ready and was acquired outside of the District by a person who was not a District resident at the time of acquisition but who subsequently moved into the District shall be registered if all relevant requirements of the District firearms control laws are met, and may be sold, transferred, or given away but only through a licensed dealer.9 If a dealer lawfully acquires a microstamp-ready semiautomatic pistol that was originally purchased by a non-dealer resident of the District, the dealer shall not sell, offer for sale, loan, give, or transfer that pistol if he or she knows or reasonably should have known that the unique alphanumeric or geometric code associated with that pistol has been changed, altered, removed, or obliterated, excepting for normal wear.10

Beginning January 1, 2018, a manufacturer transferring a pistol to a firearms dealer for sale in the District will be required to certify that the pistol was manufactured on or after January 1, 2018, and that:

  • The pistol will produce a unique alpha-numeric or geometric code on each cartridge case that identifies the make, model, and serial number of the pistol that expended the cartridge casing; and
  • The manufacturer will supply the Chief of Police with the make, model, and serial number of the pistol that expended the cartridge case, when presented with an alpha-numeric or geometric code from a cartridge case, provided, that the cartridge case was recovered as part of a legitimate law enforcement investigation.11

Except for normal wear, the District prohibits any person from changing, altering, removing or obliterating the unique alpha-numeric or geometric code associated with that pistol.12 Replacing a firing pin that has been damaged or worn and is in need of replacement for the safe use of the pistol or for a legitimate sporting purpose shall not alone be evidence that someone has violated this prohibition.13

See our Ballistic Identification and Firearm Microstamping policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

  1. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.03(d). A ballistics identification procedure is, generally, a process, approved by the Chief of Police, undertaken to identify markings unique to a particular firearm or the ammunition used by the firearm. D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 24, § 2399.1. []
  2. D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 24, § 2320.3(f), (g). []
  3. Id. []
  4. D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 24, § 2320.6. []
  5. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2504.08(a). []
  6. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2504.08(b).D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2504.08(b). []
  7. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2505.03(a)(3). []
  8. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2505.03(b). []
  9. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2505.03(c)(1). []
  10. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2505.03(c)(2). []
  11. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2505.03(e). []
  12. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2505.03(d)(1). []
  13. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2505.03(d)(2). []

Standing with the President for Smart Gun Laws

Posted on Tuesday, January 5th, 2016


Today, we stood with President Barack Obama as he issued a series of executive actions to curb the 117,000 shootings that take place every year in the United States. Our executive director, Robyn Thomas, joined gun violence prevention activists, survivors, and lawmakers at the White House for this remarkable announcement, and we’re thrilled to have been able to provide our unparalleled expertise on firearms laws and the Second Amendment to the administration to help enable this powerful action.

This announcement builds on the unprecedented momentum for smart gun laws in recent years, with 125 lifesaving laws passed in 41 states since the tragedy at Sandy Hook, and should serve as a rallying cry for more state and federal lawmakers to do everything they can to eliminate the uniquely American epidemic of gun violence.

The president said, “The United States of America is not the only country on Earth with violent or dangerous people. We are not inherently more prone to violence. But we are the only advanced country on Earth that sees this kind of mass violence erupt with this kind of frequency.”

This executive action will make Americans safer by directly addressing gun violence and improving procedures in four key areas:

  • Expanding and improving background checks—By clarifying what it means to be “engaged in the business” of selling guns, the administration will narrow the loophole that allows many private sales of firearms to occur without a background check. The President will also order improvements to the National Instant Criminal Background Checks System (NICS) to make the system more accurate, up-to-date, and efficient.
  • Making communities safer from gun violence—The White House announced that the administration will request additional resources for ATF, require reporting of lost and stolen firearms, and expand domestic violence outreach efforts.
  • Increase mental health treatment and record reporting—The President has outlined improvements to the mental health care system that will increase access to treatment and encourage better reporting of relevant records to NICS.
  • Gun safety technology—The President will instruct the Department of Justice, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Homeland Security to research smart gun technology that will potentially save lives by making it more difficult for unauthorized users, such as a child, intruder, or suicidal relative, from firing a gun they should not have access to.

We know that today’s executive action will go far to save lives in America, but we’re still looking to congressional leadership to work harder for the 90 percent of Americans who want smarter, stronger gun laws to protect them from gunfire. We agree with the president’s assessment that “until we have a Congress that’s in line with the majority of Americans, there are actions within my legal authority that we can take to help reduce gun violence and save more lives–actions that protect our rights and our kids.” We’re thrilled President Obama took action on gun violence prevention today, but there’s still so much work to do–and we won’t stop until Americans across the country are safe from gunfire.

To learn more about gun laws in all 50 states, including which currently require private sale background checks and which do not, visit the Law Center’s 2015 Gun Law State Scorecard at

2015 Gun Law State Scorecard: Why We Grade the States

Posted on Wednesday, December 16th, 2015


We’re so proud to release our much-anticipated annual Gun Law State Scorecard, which assigns letter grades and rankings to each state based on the strength of its gun laws.

The 2015 Gun Law State Scorecard reveals a strong correlation between smart gun laws and fewer gun deaths—states with the weakest laws, like Wyoming and Mississippi (ranked 48 and 49 out of 50), have some of the highest gun death rates in the country (5 and 3, respectively), while states with strong laws, like California and Massachusetts (ranked 1 and 5 out of 50), have some of the lowest gun death rates (42 and 49, respectively). Simply put, the Scorecard shows that gun laws save lives.

This year’s Scorecard comes at the tail-end of a year of seemingly relentless gun violence, with more mass shootings than days. High profile killings from Charleston to Roseburg to San Bernardino dominated the headlines in 2015 and public outcry over America’s gun violence epidemic reached a fever pitch. Never has attention been so strongly focused on this issue.

The Gun Law State Scorecard highlights a number of the gun violence prevention movement’s success stories in 2015, including:

  • Unprecedented momentum for smart gun laws in state legislatures: In the three years since the murder of 20 children and six adults at Sandy Hook Elementary School, state lawmakers have passed a remarkable 125 new smart gun laws in 41 states.
  • Oregon passes universal background checks: Lawmakers in Oregon closed a glaring gap in federal law by enacting legislation requiring private or unlicensed firearm sellers to conduct background checks.
  • Failure of guns-on-campus bills: The gun violence prevention movement scored critical victories when it came to legislation that would allow carrying concealed weapons on college campuses and the grounds of K­–12 schools—gun lobby bills failed in 14 and 15 states respectively.
  • Domestic violence legislation: Recognizing that women in domestic violence situations are five times more likely to be killed if their abusers have a gun, in 2015 nine states passed laws preventing domestic abusers from accessing firearms, with little opposition from the gun lobby.

“While Congress has shamefully failed to act on widely supported firearms policies like universal background checks and prohibiting gun possession by those on the terror watchlist, we have seen encouraging, lifesaving progress at the state level,” said Robyn Thomas, Executive Director of the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence. “The 2015 Gun Law State Scorecard shows that smart gun laws make a real difference. State legislators can make their communities safer by enacting common-sense gun laws, following in the footsteps of states like California and New York. Change isn’t just possible—it’s happening.”

The Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence has been on the frontline of many of the fights for smart gun laws in 2015. The Law Center has been working in support of background checks in Oregon since 2012, worked closely with lawmakers in 20 states, and supported domestic violence gun legislation across the country.

For more details on the state of gun laws in America in 2015, explore the Gun Law State Scorecard. 


2015 Year-End Campaign Matching Gift Opportunity

Posted on Monday, December 14th, 2015


We’re thrilled to announce that one of California’s premier law firms, Hanson Bridgett has offered to match varying categories of gifts made to the Law Center between now and December 31, up to $25,000. This remarkable show of support from Hanson Bridgett, a prestigious and philanthropic law firm that has stood with the Law Center for over a decade, is truly an honor. It demonstrates the firm’s trust in the Law Center to provide fact-based, rational policy solutions that protect Americans from the threat of gun violence. Hanson Bridgett is an invaluable partner, and this matching opportunity has incredible potential to make a difference.

Founded in 1958, Hanson Bridgett has more than 150 attorneys located in offices in San Francisco, the North Bay, Sacramento and the East Bay. Its clients range from multinational Fortune 500 corporations to individuals, including a number of public agencies in California. More information on Hanson Bridgett can be found at

We’re incredibly grateful to Hanson Bridgett for this opportunity, and to our loyal and passionate supporters who remind us constantly why we do this work. We hope you’ll stand with us and pitch in toward the $25,000 goal.


Criteria for matching gifts:

-Donations made by an individual who has never given a membership gift to the Law Center are eligible to be matched in full.

-Donations made by an individual who has not given a membership gift to the Law Center in the last two years are eligible to be matched in full.

-Any increased amount in membership gifts by individuals who have given in the last two years are eligible to be matched in the amount of the increase. (For example, if you gave $100 in 2014 and you give $200 today, $100 will be matched.)

-Additional gifts made by those who have already given membership gifts during our 2015 Year-End Campaign are eligible to be matched in the amount of the new gift.

The total amount of the matching gift is $25,000 across all gift categories.

Please contact Melissa Fisher at [email protected] with questions about your giving history.

Extremism Leaves a Nation on Edge

Posted on Thursday, December 3rd, 2015

Yesterday, the United States suffered yet another mass shooting—our 355th of the year. Fourteen were killed and 21 injured after two shooters rampaged through the Inland Regional Center in San Bernadino, California. Reports are emerging that the suspects were radicalized and have links to known terrorists.

Just days before, a Colorado Springs shopping center and Planned Parenthood fell under siege as a man radically opposed to abortion engaged in an hours-long standoff with law enforcement, killing three and injuring nine others with a semiautomatic rifle.

Four men have been charged in the November 23 shooting at a Black Lives Matter demonstration in Minneapolis, wounding five—an incident which authorities believe was racially motivated.

We need reform at the state and federal levels. We’re tired of our lawmakers offering their thoughts and prayers—those won’t stop the next mass shooter, or any of the 88 gun deaths we average per day. We’re ready for swift and decisive action to stop the 117,000 shootings the United States sees each year. And we know you are too. Our executive director, Robyn Thomas, wrote this op-ed for the Daily Dot on just how ready the American public is for the smart gun laws that will save lives.

…Action is needed. We are collectively answerable to the victims of gun violence and to an ever-growing community of grieving family members for the policies our leaders enact, or fail to enact, to protect our communities. We need to do more than just tweet sympathy—we need to force our leaders to pass the smart gun laws that the research has proven again and again save lives.

Polls have repeatedly shown that the American public is in broad agreement about what must be done to prevent gun violence. Over 90 percent of Americans support closing the loophole that allows felons, domestic abusers and the dangerously mentally ill to buy guns without a background check. Yet, thanks to pressure from the gun lobby, Congress has failed to act…

Read more…

While these shooters were all motivated by different factors and separated by hundreds of miles, a common thread ties the incidents together: it’s all too easy for extremists, zealots, and bigots to get their hands on deadly weapons when the impulse to inflict harm became too powerful to resist.

Read the full text of Robyn’s op-ed

For more information on California’s gun laws, see our policy page.

For more information on how your state stacks up when it comes to smart gun laws, see our annual Gun Law State Scorecard.



Closing the Terror Gap in American Gun Laws

Posted on Tuesday, November 17th, 2015

Paris vigil
Last week, the world watched in horror as Paris came under attack–129 killed in coordinated mass shootings and bombings across the city. Our hearts are with the victims, their families, and those who survived the attack, and we stand with the people of the world in calling for an end to the kind of senseless violence that terrorized Paris and the global community this weekend.

As gun law experts, we know universal background checks and more effective mental health screenings will help prevent many of the headline-grabbing shootings we’ve seen in the last several years—these are effective, powerful ways to curb gun violence in our communities. But, it’s also important that we consider our nation’s security in the aftermath of the Paris attacks by looking at gaps in our gun laws–specifically concerning acts of terrorism.

One such weakness, the “terror gap,” persists because a hole in federal legislation does not bar those on the terrorist watchlist from purchasing firearms. Unlike felons, the dangerously mentally ill, and certain drug abusers, federal law does not prohibit known or suspected terrorists from purchasing guns. Though 82% of NRA members and 86% of non-NRA gun owners support such legislation, only one state (New Jersey in 2013) has taken appropriate steps to address the terror gap. This failure to act has resulted in drastic consequences:

To be clear, Friday’s attacks were not the result of weak national gun laws; with some of the most progressive gun laws in the world, France’s annual death rate from firearms is drastically lower than that of the United States. But illegal trafficking from nearby countries increases the availability of deadly weapons and makes it easier for terrorists to carry out acts of violence.

Within our own borders, weak gun laws in most states make it easy for deadly firearms to fall into the wrong hands. And this fact is far from a secret—a senior al-Qaeda leader even lauded how simple it is to obtain firearms in America, releasing a video message to urge followers to buy guns in states without universal background checks.

Acts of terrorism like the ones we witnessed last week and many of the strategies for combatting them are different in kind from the gun violence we see in American communities on a daily basis, but both situations are amplified by overwhelmingly easy access to deadly weapons. Trafficking may be what enables deplorable acts of terrorism like what we saw in Paris, but with effective legislation to close the terror gap, we can take important steps to ensure a safer, more secure environment for everyone.

Calling For a New Approach to Gun Violence Research

Posted on Wednesday, November 11th, 2015


With 100,000 Americans shot every year—and 30,000 dying from those wounds—gun violence is undoubtedly a major health crisis in the United States. To outline the leading causes of injury death by age, we highlighted instances of gun violence in this chart to show just how pervasive the issue is—and how urgently we need reforms and smart gun laws to protect communities from tragedy.

CDC CHART FINAL Click to enlarge.

Ranking in the top 10 for injury deaths for all ages except babies under the age of 1, we know guns threaten us at every single stage in our lives.
Compiled using data from the Centers for Disease Control, the chart not only reveals the destructive nature of gun violence, but also shows just how instrumental the CDC’s research is in understanding the health issues that plague the United States. We’re proud to stand with California representative Mike Honda, who recently introduced a bill calling for an end to the CDC’s ban on gun violence research, to offer Americans a data-driven approach to ending this epidemic. We desperately need to support efforts toward transparency in determining what threatens our safety—especially when one of those threats is as preventable as gun violence.

We’ve broken down the chart into some key takeaways:

  • Ranking in the top five causes of death for Americans between the ages of 5 and 44, firearm homicide is an overwhelming threat at almost every age.
  • Firearm suicide—the third leading cause of death for children ages 10–14—remains in the top four causes of death for all subsequent age groups. With guns, the decision to take one’s own life is almost always irreversible—even if the person making that decision is only in the fourth grade.
  • Tragically, unintentional firearm deaths rank 10th and ninth for children ages 5–9 and 10–14, respectively. With guns in the home, children or toddlers looking for their toys and playing with their siblings can find deadly weapons instead—and kill themselves or their siblings without knowing the consequences that will follow them for the rest of their lives. Gun locks, safe storage practices and child access prevention laws can help prevent these senseless shootings.

This year, for the first time, firearm deaths are expected to take more lives in the 15–24 age group than motor vehicle accidents. The continual string of tragic school shootings and violence among young adults reminds us on a daily basis just how suddenly a promising life can end and how devastating it is that more and more young people are dying as a result of completely preventable gun violence.

Though we may only hear about shootings in the media when extreme or shocking mass shootings occur, the facts show that gun violence is a lethal threat to American lives each and every day. We need to implement smart gun laws that reverse the trend of horrific gun violence in the United States—not only through common sense solutions such as universal background checks and ammunition regulations, but by supporting government agencies, such as the CDC, designed to ensure our safety by taking on challenges to our public health.

For more information on how to keep children safe from unintended shootings, see our Commonsense Solutions Toolkit.

Smart Gun Laws Protect Families from Domestic Violence

Posted on Friday, October 30th, 2015

DV-blog-graphicIt’s a fact that guns and domestic violence are a lethal combination in America—they’re the most common weapons used by abusers who kill their partners, and are by far the most deadly. As Domestic Violence Awareness Month comes to a close, we hope Americans gain a deeper understanding of the grave danger domestic abusers pose to public safety—especially when guns are involved.

  • Domestic violence situations involving guns are 12 times more likely to result in death than other weapons or bodily force.
  • Domestic abuse situations are five times more likely to be fatal if the abuser has access to a gun.
  • Women in the United States are 11 times more likely to be murdered with a gun than in other high-income countries.

And yet, in spite of this information, federal law contains deadly loopholes that let domestic abusers buy and possess firearms—especially if they already own them.

Despite inaction at the federal level, 18 states have passed new laws to protect victims of domestic violence from gunfire since 2013. These powerful pieces of legislation restrict convicted abusers from accessing guns or make it easier for law enforcement to remove guns from abusers who own them. These state laws are important because they directly address gaps in current policy regarding stalkers and dating partners and help background check systems identify convicted abusers.

For example, a new law in Delaware, which Governor Jack Markell signed earlier this month, extends the state’s gun prohibition to people convicted of dating partner abuse. The law also adds accountability to the requirement that domestic abusers subject to protective orders surrender their guns. Our attorneys worked closely with Americans for Responsible Solutions and local domestic violence and gun safety advocates to craft this lifesaving law.

The momentum for better domestic violence laws shows no signs of stopping—even states with strong gun cultures, like Utah and Louisiana, which both score an F on our Gun Law State Scorecard, have enacted laws barring domestic abusers from possessing firearms in recent years.

For more information on the laws states can pass to help protect victims of domestic abuse, see our Commonsense Solutions Toolkit: State Laws to Address Gun Violence Against Women.

For more information about existing domestic violence gun laws, visit our policy page.

See how your state stacks up when it comes to domestic violence gun laws and join the campaign to Protect All Women.

Guns in Schools in California

Posted on Thursday, October 29th, 2015

Grades K through 12: California prohibits any person from possessing a firearm in a place that person knows, or reasonably should know, is a school zone.1 “School zone” is defined as an area in, or on the grounds of, a public or private school providing instruction in kindergarten or grades one to twelve, inclusive, or within a distance of 1,000 feet from the grounds of the public or private school.2 However, a person may possess a firearm in a school zone:

  • By written permission of the school district superintendent, his or her designee, or equivalent school authority;3
  • Within a place of residence or place of business or on private property, if that location is not part of the school grounds and the possession of the firearm is otherwise lawful;4
  • When the firearm is an unloaded handgun and is in a locked container or within the locked trunk of a motor vehicle;5
  • For the lawful transportation of any other firearm, other than a handgun, in accordance with state law;6
  • When the person possessing the firearm reasonably believes that he or she is in grave danger because of circumstances forming the basis of a current restraining order issued by a court against another person or persons who has or have been found to pose a threat to his or her life or safety.7 This exception does not apply in certain circumstances involving a mutual restraining order;8
  • When the person is a licensed gun dealer, manufacturer, importer, or wholesaler, or a member of an authorized military or civilian organization when parading, and the gun is unloaded;9
  • When the person is a guard or messenger of a common carrier or bank who, within the course of his or her employment, transports or delivers money or other valuables;10 or
  • When the person is a duly appointed peace officer, honorably retired police officer, or security guard authorized to carry a concealed firearm under state law.11

These restrictions also do not apply to existing shooting ranges at public or private schools or university or college campuses.12

Until the enactment of SB 707 in 2015, concealed weapons license holders were also exempt from these restrictions and were authorized to carry handguns and ammunition in schools or school zones.13  However, California law now requires that concealed weapons license holders obtain written permission from authorized school officials before carrying firearms or ammunition onto the grounds of K-12 schools, colleges, or universities.14

SB 707 also clarified that individuals may carry ammunition onto school grounds without prior written authorization if the ammunition is kept within a locked container or within the locked trunk of a motor vehicle.15

See the Non-Powder Guns in California section for information about non-powder guns in schools.

The principal or superintendent of a school or school system must immediately suspend, and recommend the expulsion of, any pupil that he or she determines has possessed a firearm, or sold or furnished a firearm to others, either at school or at a school activity off school grounds, provided that another employee of the school district has verified the pupil’s possession of a firearm.16 However, a pupil may obtain prior written permission to possess a firearm from a certificated school employee, if the principal or a designee of the principal concurs.17

The superintendent or principal of a school is also authorized to suspend and recommend for expulsion any pupil who possesses an imitation firearm. An “imitation firearm” is any replica of a firearm that is so substantially similar in physical properties to an existing firearm that a reasonable person would consider it a firearm.18

With limited exceptions, no person may carry ammunition or reloaded ammunition onto school grounds.19

Colleges and universities: California generally prohibits a person from bringing or possessing a firearm, whether loaded or unloaded, upon the grounds of a public or private university or college campus, or any buildings owned or operated for student housing, teaching, research, or administration by a public or private university or college, which are contiguous or are clearly marked university property.20 Universities and colleges must post prominent notices at primary entrances on non-contiguous school property stating that firearms are prohibited on that property.21 Possession of a firearm on university or college property is allowed if the university or college president or an equivalent authority has granted permission in writing.22 Concealed weapons licensees were exempt from this prohibition until the enactment of SB 707 in 2015.23 However, California law now requires that concealed weapons license holders obtain written permission from authorized school officials before carrying firearms or ammunition onto college and university campuses, unless the unloaded firearm or ammunition is kept in a locked container or within the locked trunk of a motor vehicle.24

See our Guns in Schools policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

  1. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(b). []
  2. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(e)(1). []
  3. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(b). []
  4. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(c)(1). []
  5. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(c)(2). []
  6. Id. []
  7. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(c)(3). []
  8. Id. (referencing Cal. Fam. Code § 6200 et seq.). []
  9. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(c)(4) (referencing §§ 25615, 25625). []
  10. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(c)(4) (referencing §§ 25630 and 25645). []
  11. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(l), (m), (o). []
  12. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(n). []
  13. See former Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(l). []
  14. Cal. Penal Code §§ 626.9(b), (c), 30310. []
  15. Cal. Penal Code § 30310(b)(10). []
  16. Cal. Educ. Code §§ 48900(b), 48915(c)(1). []
  17. Id. []
  18. Cal. Educ. Code §§ 48900(m), 48915(c)(1). []
  19. Cal. Penal Code § 30310(a). This requirement does not apply to peace officers, members of the military, or armored vehicle guards carrying out their official duties, to concealed weapons license holders, or to individuals who have the written permission of the school district superintendent or equivalent school authority. Cal. Penal Code § 30310(b). []
  20. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(h), (i). []
  21. Id. []
  22. Id. []
  23. See former Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(l). []
  24. Cal. Penal Code §§ 626.9(b), (c), 30310. []